The standards of proficiency for occupational therapists
These standards set out safe and effective practice in the professions we regulate. They are the threshold standards we consider necessary to protect members of the public.
Professionals must meet all the standards of proficiency to register with us and meet the standards relevant to their scope of practice to stay registered with us.
A note about our expectations of you
You must meet all the standards of proficiency to register with us and meet the standards relevant to your scope of practice to stay registered with us.
If your practice is called into question, we will consider these standards (and the standards of conduct, performance and ethics) in deciding what action, if any, we need to take.
The standards of proficiency complement information and guidance issued by other organisations, such as your professional body or your employer. We recognise the valuable role played by professional bodies in providing guidance and advice about good practice which can help you to meet the standards in this document.
We also expect registrants to meet the HCPC standards of conduct, performance and ethics and standards for continuing professional development.
Your scope of practice
Your scope of practice is the area or areas of your profession in which you have the knowledge, skills and experience to practise lawfully, safely and effectively, in a way that meets the standards and does not pose any danger to the public or to yourself.
We recognise that a registrant’s scope of practice will change over time and that the practice of experienced registrants often becomes more focused and specialised than that of newly registered colleagues. This might be because of specialisation in a certain area or with a particular client group, or a movement into roles in management, education or research. Every time you renew your registration, you will be asked to sign a declaration that you continue to meet the standards of proficiency that apply to your scope of practice.
Your particular scope of practice may mean that you are unable to continue to demonstrate that you meet all of the standards that apply for the whole of your profession.
As long as you make sure that you are practising safely and effectively within your given scope of practice and do not practise in the areas where you are not proficient to do so, this will not be a problem. If you want to move outside of your scope of practice, you should be certain that you are capable of working lawfully, safely and effectively. This means that you need to exercise personal judgement by undertaking any necessary training or gaining experience, before moving into a new area of practice.
Meeting the standards
It is important that you meet these standards and are able to practise lawfully, safely and effectively. However, we do not dictate how you should meet the standards. There is normally more than one way in which each standard can be met and the way in which you meet the standards might change over time because of improvements in technology or changes in your practice.
We often receive questions from registrants who are concerned that something they have been asked to do, a policy, or the way in which they work might mean they cannot meet the standards. They are often worried that this might have an effect on their registration.
As an autonomous professional, you need to make informed, reasoned decisions about your practice to ensure that you meet the standards that apply to you. This includes seeking advice and support from education providers, employers, colleagues, professional bodies, unions and others to ensure that the wellbeing of service users is safeguarded at all times. So long as you do this and can justify your decisions if asked to, it is very unlikely that you will not meet the standards.
We recognise that our registrants work in a range of different settings, which include direct practice, management, education, research and roles in industry. We also recognise that the use of terminology can be an emotive issue.
Our registrants work with very different people and use different terms to describe the groups that use, or are affected by, their services. Some of our registrants work with patients, others with clients and others with service users. The terms that you use will depend on how and where you work. We have used terms in these standards which we believe best reflect the groups that you work with.
In the standards of proficiency, we use phrases such as ‘understand’ and ‘know’. This is so the standards remain applicable to current registrants in maintaining their fitness to practise, as well as prospective registrants who have not yet started practising and are applying for registration for the first time.
Standards of proficiency
These standards are effective from 1 September 2023.
The standards include generic elements, which apply to all our registrants, and profession-specific elements, which are relevant to registrants belonging to one of the professions we regulate.
The standards are not hierarchical and are all equally important for practice.
- The generic standards, which apply to all professions, are written in bold text.
- The profession-specific standards are written in plain text.
At the point of registration, occupational therapists must be able to:
1.1 identify the limits of their practice and when to seek advice or refer to another professional or service
1.2 recognise the need to manage their own workload and resources safely and effectively, including managing the emotional burden that comes with working in a pressured environment
1.3 keep their skills and knowledge up to date and understand the importance of continuing professional development throughout their career
2.1 maintain high standards of personal and professional conduct
2.2 promote and protect the service user’s interests at all times
2.3 understand the importance of safeguarding by actively looking for signs of abuse, demonstrating understanding of relevant safeguarding processes and engaging in these processes where necessary
2.4 understand what is required of them by the Health and Care Professions Council, including, but not limited to, the standards of conduct, performance and ethics
2.5 respect and uphold the rights, dignity, values and autonomy of service users, including their role in the assessment, diagnostic, treatment and/or therapeutic process
2.6 recognise that relationships with service users, carers and others should be based on mutual respect and trust, maintaining high standards of care in all circumstances
2.7 understand the importance of and be able to obtain valid consent, which is voluntary and informed, has due regard to capacity, is proportionate to the circumstances and is appropriately documented
2.8 understand the importance of capacity in the context of delivering care and treatment
2.9 understand the scope of a professional duty of care, and exercise that duty
2.10 understand and apply legislation, policies and guidance relevant to their profession and scope of practice
2.11 recognise the power imbalance that comes with being a healthcare professional, and ensure they do not abuse this for personal gain
2.12 understand the effect of legislation on the delivery of care
3.1 identify anxiety and stress in themselves and recognise the potential impact on their practice
3.2 understand the importance of their own mental and physical health and wellbeing strategies in maintaining fitness to practise
3.3 understand how to take appropriate action if their health may affect their ability to practise safely and effectively, including seeking help and support when necessary
3.4 develop and adopt clear strategies for physical and mental self-care and self-awareness, to maintain a high standard of professional effectiveness and a safe working environment
4.1 recognise that they are personally responsible for, and must be able to justify, their decisions and actions
4.2 use their skills, knowledge and experience, and the information available to them, to make informed decisions and/or take action where necessary
4.3 make reasoned decisions to initiate, continue, modify or cease treatment, or the use of techniques or procedures, and record the decisions and reasoning appropriately
4.4 make and receive appropriate referrals, where necessary
4.5 exercise personal initiative
4.6 demonstrate a logical and systematic approach to problem-solving
4.7 use research, reasoning and problem-solving skills when determining appropriate actions
4.8 understand the need for active participation in training, supervision and mentoring in supporting high standards of practice, and personal and professional conduct, and the importance of demonstrating this in practice
5.1 respond appropriately to the needs of all groups and individuals in practice, recognising that this can be affected by difference of any kind including, but not limited to, protected characteristics,* intersectional experiences and cultural differences
5.2 understand equality legislation and apply it to their practice
5.3 recognise the potential impact of their own values, beliefs and personal biases (which may be unconscious) on practice and take personal action to ensure all service users and carers are treated appropriately with respect and dignity
5.4 understand the duty to make reasonable adjustments in practice and be able to make and support reasonable adjustments in their and others’ practice
5.5 recognise the characteristics and consequences of barriers to inclusion, including for socially isolated groups
5.6 actively challenge these barriers, supporting the implementation of change wherever possible
5.7 recognise that regard to equality, diversity and inclusion needs to be embedded in the application of all HCPC standards, across all areas of practice
* The Equality Act 2010 defines the protected characteristics as age, disability, gender reassignment, race, religion or belief, sex, sexual orientation, marriage and civil partnership and pregnancy and maternity. Equivalent equality legislation in Northern Ireland protects age, disability, gender, race, religion or belief and sexual orientation.
6.1 adhere to the professional duty of confidentiality and understand when disclosure may be required
6.2 understand the principles of information and data governance and be aware of the safe and effective use of health, social care and other relevant information
6.3 recognise and respond in a timely manner to situations where it is necessary to share information to safeguard service users, carers and/or the wider public
6.4 understand the need to ensure that confidentiality is maintained in all situations in which service users rely on additional communication support (such as interpreters or translators)
6.5 recognise that the concepts of confidentiality and informed consent extend to all mediums, including illustrative clinical records such as photography, video and audio recordings and digital platforms
7.1 use effective and appropriate verbal and non-verbal skills to communicate with service users, carers, colleagues and others
7.2 communicate in English to the required standard for their profession (equivalent to level 7 of the International English Language Testing System, with no element below 6.5*)
7.3 understand the characteristics and consequences of verbal and non-verbal communication and recognise how these can be affected by difference of any kind, including, but not limited to, protected characteristics,** intersectional experiences and cultural differences
7.4 work with service users and/or their carers to facilitate the service user’s preferred role in decision-making, and provide service users and carers with the information they may need where appropriate
7.5 modify their own means of communication to address the individual communication needs and preferences of service users and carers, and remove any barriers to communication where possible
7.6 understand the need to support the communication needs of service users and carers, such as through the use of an appropriate interpreter
7.7 use information, communication and digital technologies appropriate to their practice
7.8 understand the need to provide service users or people acting on their behalf with the information necessary, in accessible formats, to enable them to make informed decisions
7.9 actively listen to a service user’s occupational narrative and analyse the content in order to plan for the future
7.10 understand the values, beliefs, culture, behaviours and interests of service users and carers, through interview and personal discussion
* The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) tests competence in the English language. Applicants who have qualified outside of the UK, whose first language is not English and who are not applying through the Swiss Mutual Recognition Route (SMR) must provide evidence that they have reached the necessary standard. More information is available here: Statement on English language proficiency requirements for internationally trained health and care professionals.
** The Equality Act 2010 defines the protected characteristics as age, disability, gender reassignment, race, religion or belief, sex, sexual orientation, marriage and civil partnership and pregnancy and maternity. Equivalent equality legislation in Northern Ireland protects age, disability, gender, race, religion or belief and sexual orientation.
8.1 work in partnership with service users, carers, colleagues and others
8.2 recognise the principles and practices of other health and care professionals and systems and how they interact with their profession
8.3 understand the need to build and sustain professional relationships as both an autonomous practitioner and collaboratively as a member of a team
8.4 contribute effectively to work undertaken as part of a multi-disciplinary team
8.5 identify anxiety and stress in service users, carers and colleagues, adapting their practice and providing support where appropriate
8.6 understand the qualities, behaviours and benefits of leadership
8.7 recognise that leadership is a skill all professionals can demonstrate
8.8 identify their own leadership qualities, behaviours and approaches, taking into account the importance of equality, diversity and inclusion
8.9 demonstrate leadership behaviours appropriate to their practice
8.10 act as a role model for others
8.11 promote and engage in the learning of others
8.12 understand the need to engage service users and carers in planning and evaluating assessments, treatments and interventions to meet their needs and goals
8.13 ensure intervention reviews are informed by changes in service users’ circumstances
8.14 understand the need to work with those who provide services in and across different sectors, in order to best meet service users’ needs. Recognise the involvement of public, private and voluntary sector providers in the delivery of health, care and other services which affect occupational performance
8.15 understand the need to adopt an approach which centres on the service user, and establish appropriate professional relationships in order to motivate and involve the service user in meaningful occupation
8.16 understand the value of enabling and empowering service users, with the aim of enhancing their access to all services and opportunities available to them
8.17 understand group dynamics and roles, and facilitate group work in order to maximise support, learning and change within groups and communities
8.18 understand the need to capitalise, where appropriate, on the dynamics within groups and communities in order to harness the motivation and active involvement of participants
8.19 work in appropriate partnership with service users in order to evaluate the effectiveness of occupational therapy intervention
9.1 keep full, clear and accurate records in accordance with applicable legislation, protocols and guidelines
9.2 manage records and all other information in accordance with applicable legislation, protocols and guidelines
9.3 use digital record keeping tools, where required
10.1 understand the value of reflective practice and the need to record the outcome of such reflection to support continuous improvement
10.2 recognise the value of multi-disciplinary reviews, case conferences and other methods of review
10.3 recognise and evaluate the potential of occupational therapy in new and emerging areas of practice
11.1 engage in evidence-based practice
11.2 gather and use feedback and information, including qualitative and quantitative data, to evaluate the response of service users to their care
11.3 monitor and systematically evaluate the quality of practice, and maintain an effective quality management and quality assurance process working towards continual improvement
11.4 participate in quality management, including quality control, quality assurance, clinical governance and the use of appropriate outcome measures
11.5 evaluate care plans or intervention plans using recognised and appropriate outcome measures, in conjunction with the service user where possible, and revise the plans as necessary
11.6 recognise the value of gathering and using data for quality assurance and improvement programmes
12.1 understand the structure and function of the human body, together with knowledge of physical and mental health, disease, disorder and dysfunction relevant to their profession
12.2 demonstrate awareness of the principles and applications of scientific enquiry, including the evaluation of treatment efficacy and the research process
12.3 recognise the role(s) of other professions in health and social care and understand how they may relate to the role of occupational therapist
12.4 understand the structure and function of health and social care systems and services in the UK
12.5 understand the occupational nature of human beings and how they function in everyday activities such as self care, productivity and leisure and their changing needs during the lifecycle
12.6 understand the inter-relationship between the person, their environment and their chosen occupation, barriers and enablers in this system and how to change each component as part of rehabilitation
12.7 apply the theoretical concepts underpinning occupational therapy, including concepts of:
- human development;
- sociology; and
- occupational science
12.8 be able to apply the theoretical concepts underpinning occupational therapy to inform the understanding of physical, emotional and mental health
12.9 understand the effect of occupational alienation, dysfunction, deprivation and injustice, recognising the importance of restoring and facilitating opportunities to achieve occupational wellness
12.10 understand and analyse activity and occupation and their relation to and effect on health, wellbeing and function, as part of occupational formulation, diagnosis, and therapeutic use of occupation
12.11 understand the theoretical basis of, and the variety of approaches to, assessment, planning, intervention and evaluation that focus on occupational outcomes
12.12 understand the need to identify and assess diverse occupational, physical, psychological, cognitive, cultural and environmental needs and problems of service users and carers
12.13 demonstrate awareness of physical, attitudinal, social, economic, educational, environmental and work-related policies and services and their effect on people within a diverse society
12.14 recognise the value of the diversity and complexity of human behaviour through the exploration of different physical, psychological, cognitive, environmental, social, emotional and spiritual perspectives
12.15 demonstrate awareness of the origins and development of occupational therapy, including the evolution of the profession towards the current emphasis on autonomy and empowerment of individuals, groups and communities
12.16 understand the use of the current philosophical models for occupational therapy that focuses on service users and holistic person-centred care and a person’s ability to participate in occupations, taking into account physical, biological, psychological and social factors and the environmental context
12.17 understand the concept of, and support others with, the facilitation of, teaching and learning including teaching self-management strategies to service users and carers
13.1 change their practice as needed to take account of new developments, technologies and changing contexts
13.2 gather appropriate information
13.3 analyse and critically evaluate the information collected
13.4 select and use appropriate assessment techniques and equipment
13.5 undertake and record a thorough, sensitive and detailed assessment
13.6 undertake or arrange investigations as appropriate
13.7 conduct appropriate assessment or monitoring procedures, treatment, therapy or other actions safely and effectively
13.8 recognise a range of research methodologies relevant to their role
13.9 recognise the value of research to the critical evaluation of practice
13.10 critically evaluate research and other evidence to inform their own practice</strong>
13.11 engage service users in research as appropriate
13.12 understand the need to consider the assessment of the health, social care, employment and learning needs of service users, including the need for risk assessment and positive risk-taking
13.13 select and use relevant standardised and non-standardised assessment techniques, and observation, to gather information about the service user’s functional and occupational abilities, performance and participation, taking account of the cultural and environmental context
13.14 formulate specific and appropriate care or case management plans including the setting of timescales
13.15 understand the need to agree the goals and priorities of intervention in relation to occupational needs in partnership with service users, basing such decisions on assessment results
13.16 select, as appropriate, the specific occupations and activities for use as therapeutic media, taking into account the particular needs of service users
13.17 understand and use the scientific theories, concepts, principles and professional frameworks underpinning occupational therapy practice
13.18 demonstrate awareness of the broad range of occupations and activities that can be used in intervention, and how these should reflect the individual’s occupational needs and preferences
13.19 select or develop therapeutic media and environments, and adapt these as appropriate to meet service users’ needs, build on their abilities and enhance their occupational performance and participation
13.20 understand the need to meet the emotional, social, psychological, cognitive and physical health-based occupational needs of service users, across a range of practice areas and how this can vary across a range of practice areas
14.1 understand the need to maintain the safety of themself and others, including service users, carers and colleagues
14.2 demonstrate awareness of relevant health and safety legislation and comply with all local operational procedures and policies
14.3 work safely, including being able to select appropriate hazard control and risk management, reduction or elimination techniques, in a safe manner and in accordance with health and safety legislation
14.4 select appropriate personal protective equipment and use it correctly
14.5 establish safe environments for practice, which appropriately manage risk
14.6 understand and apply appropriate moving and handling techniques
15.1 understand the role of their profession in health promotion, health education and preventing ill health
15.2 understand how social, economic and environmental factors (wider determinants of health) can influence a person’s health and wellbeing
15.3 empower and enable individuals (including service users and colleagues) to play a part in managing their own health
15.4 engage in occupational health, including being aware of immunisation requirements
We first published standards of proficiency for occupational therapists when our Register opened in July 2003.
We review the standards regularly to look at how they are working and to check whether they continue to reflect current practice in the professions we regulate. Our most recent review began in 2019 and included a formal consultation and close collaboration with key stakeholders, registrants and professional bodies. The revised sets of standards for all 15 professions were formally approved by our Council in March 2022 and came into effect on 1 September 2023.
The profession-specific standards for occupational therapists were developed with the input of the relevant professional bodies and the views of stakeholders during our consultation work. We are confident that the standards are fit for purpose and reflect safe and effective professional practice in occupational therapy.
As part of our commitment to ensuring the standards remain relevant to current professional practice, will continue to listen to our stakeholders and keep the standards under regular review.
This may result in updates to the standards in future, which may include corrections, amendments or changes to ensure the standards remain relevant.
This is a crucial component in fulfilling our purpose to promote excellence in the professions we regulate, and championing high quality care that the public can access safely and with confidence.
This document contains minor amendments to typographical errors, meaning it may differ slightly from previous versions published on our website.
The publication code for these standards is 20230901POLPUB OTSoP.
On 1 September 2023 the updated standards of proficiency came into in effect, which included changes to the standards for all professions and changes to profession-specific standards.
To see the changes between the previous and updated sets of standards, download the comparison table for occupational therapists.
- Standards and guidance
- Professional standards
- Occupational therapists